While the science and research surrounding these hallmarks is very involved, the influence we can have on them, both lifestyle and molecular is quite simple.
There are many biological factors that are currently being studied to provide insights and direction on how we can modify and improve these Hallmarks of Ageing. Since the first draft mapping of the genome in 2001 to now doing clinical trials of molecules on human cells, there is a wealth of information we're using to develop our blends.
Our unique blends focus on the findings of 8 of the most advanced areas of scientific research currently being undertaken that are influenced by the Hallmarks of Ageing.
Our commitment to combining the latest scientific advancements, earth-grown nutrients and proven applications from medical professionals ensures you can be confident that our nutrigenomic blends are pure, potent, natural. They are formulated using the latest longevity and anti-ageing progress worldwide to influence cells, right down to a DNA level to help everyone achieve healthy living and manage the ageing process.
Long known as the powerhouse of the cell, these organelles play a vital role in the function of every cell and organ in the human body. As far back as the mid-1950’s scientists have understood the importance of the mitochondria and it was once stated that “a cell without a mitochondria is like a ship without an engine”.
The role of these powerhouses is to take the food that we eat and the air we breathe and chemically convert them into energy rich molecules. These molecules are called ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and are the energy currency of the cell. The mitochondria are responsible for creating more than 90% of the energy required by the body to sustain life and support organ function.
How do the mitochondria produce energy? They act like a microscopic digestive system which takes in nutrients, breaks them down and creates energy rich molecules for the cell to use. This biochemical reaction is referred to as cellular respiration. Some cells have thousands of mitochondria (e.g. large muscle cells) while other cells may only have one (e.g. neurons). If some cells feel they need more energy to survive then they can actually produce more mitochondria to fuel that need. It all depends on the need of that cell.
All this energy production occurs inside the mitochondria, in an area known as the matrix of the cell. This matrix is filled with fluid where there are many substances floating around including proteins, ribosomes, DNA and granules. Cellular respiration in this matrix involves the process of converting organic molecules from our foods via numerous chemical exchanges to produce ATP that supercharges all the functions of our cell. It’s during this conversion process that NAD is vital in it the final production of energy. Without adequate NAD in the cell, ATP is produced at lower amounts and the whole function of the cell becomes sluggish and unproductive. This leads to disease development as the cell cannot protect or repair itself properly and we see accelerated ageing occur.
Other functions of the mitochondria include controlling the cell cycle and cell growth, cell signalling, cell differentiation and the process of cell death.
Sirtuins are a family of proteins that play a role in ageing by regulating cellular health. They're responsible for critical biological functions such as DNA expression, influencing a wide range of cellular processes like ageing, transcription, apoptosis, inflammation and stress resistance, as well as energy efficiency. They manage everything in the cell to allow it to function as efficiently as possible and for as long as possible. However, sirtuins can only function in the presence of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) a coenzyme found in all living cells.
Research has discovered 7 sirtuin proteins (there are over 60,000 proteins in the body all with various functions) and they are all responsible for various parts of cellular and mitochondrial function. Specific research is being targeted towards SIRT1, SIRT2 and SIRT6 - long called the Longevity Genes. These sirtuins regulate the cell cycle, inflammation, and DNA repair while the remaining sirtuins work on regulating detoxification, transcription and insulin secretion.
The goal is to keep our cells functioning like a well-drilled sports team. We need all areas of the team to be communicating, interacting and supporting each other. To operate a successful team we need a Coach who oversees all operations from player recutiment and training, to what playing strategies the players will undertake – attack, defence, counteractions or minimising the oppositions strengths. The Coach fills this function in the team and likewise sirtuins fill this roll at a cellular level. By activating and supporting these SIRT proteins, we can improve our cellular function and keep the cell alive and productive for a lot longer.
Ageing has been observed as a long-term decline in the regulation and function of the cell as it no longer acts like a well-drilled team becoming tired, disorganised and weakened. Enter NAD+. This is the “funding” that keeps this well-drilled cellular machine operating. NAD+ has been found to diminish as we age leading to a reduction in productivity and efficiency of sirtuin activity, resulting in cell dysfunction and ultimately cell death.
Cyanidines (chemicals that make food red/blue/purple), NAD and other innovative molecules are all undergoing studies to show how they can upregulate and refuel these sirtuin proteins and bring our cells back to a similar level of activity that we saw in our youth.
NAD+ or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, is a coenzyme found in all of our cells. It is essential for the metabolic processing of nutrients, meaning it determines how much of that salad you ate will power your body and how many of its vitamins and minerals will go to waste.
So what does NAD+ do? Basically, it keeps each cell running like a tiny, well-oiled machine.
When our cells live longer and function in top form, we enjoy clearer skin, thicker hair, more energy, and less brain fog. In other words, we feel (and look) young.
According to scientific research, a key to staying young is efficient DNA repair.
Each strand of our DNA contains the blueprint for our entire body, but when it gets damaged, it can cause cells to die or mutate. This can create a number of problems, including cancer.
NAD+ is essential for repairing DNA and has even been shown to make old (damaged) tissue look young again.
But there’s one problem. Studies on humans have clearly shown that NAD+ levels decrease as we age. This has led scientists to suggest that declining NAD+ levels are associated with signs of ageing and age-related illnesses, accelerating ageing and decreasing lifespan.
Research studies now support that supplementing NAD+ levels with intermediates (eg Active B3 and NR) can bolster the system by restoring the available NAD+ and mitigate physiological decline associated with ageing.
Telomeres are the caps at the end of each strand of DNA that protect our chromosomes, like the plastic tips at the end of shoelaces. Without this coating shoelaces become frayed until they can no longer do their job, just as without telomeres, DNA strands become damaged and our cells can't do their job.
Telomeres bind the ends of chromosomes together and protect them from degradation during cell division. This is the reason telomeres are so important in context of successful cell division. Every time a cell divides the length of its telomeres shortens slightly. They "cap" the end-sequences and these caps themselves get lost in the process of DNA replication.
Shorter telomeres have a negative effect on our health. Telomere shortening is the main cause of age-related break down of our cells. Every time a cell divides, errors in duplication accumulate, resulting in cellular dysfunction. When telomeres get too short, our cells can no longer divide, which causes our tissues to degenerate and eventually die.
But the cell has an enzyme called telomerase, that plays a vital role in maintaining the length of telomeres and stabilising chromosomes during cell division. Telomerase carries out the task of adding repetitive nucleotide sequences caps (telomeres) back to the ends of the DNA strands to slow, prevent and repair shortening. This allows the process of healthy cell division to continue. Many nutrients and plants have been found to increase Telomerase activity and protect this vital function of the cell.
As our body ages, increasing amounts of our cells enter into a state of senescence. Senescent cells do not divide or support the tissues of which they are part, instead they emit a range of potentially harmful chemical signals that encourage nearby cells to enter the same senescent state.
Their presence causes many problems. They degrade tissue function, increase levels of chronic inflammation, and can even eventually raise the risk of cancer.
Senescent cells normally destroy themselves via a programmed process called apoptosis, and they are also removed by the immune system, however the immune system weakens with age and increasing numbers of these senescent cells escape this process and build up.
By the time people reach old age, significant numbers of these senescent cells have accumulated in the body, causing inflammation and damage to surrounding cells and tissue. These senescent cells are one of the hallmarks of ageing and a key process in the progression of ageing.
A new class of molecules known as Senolytics focuses on the destruction of these stubborn “death-resistant” cells from the body in order to reduce inflammation and improve tissue function. New research shows we can remove some of these senescent cells in order to promote healthy ageing and longevity.
Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth, being most abundant in our early growing years and then declining as we get older. Stem cells serve as a sort of internal repair system in many tissues, dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cells as long as a person is still alive. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential either to remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialised function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell.
Stem cells are important for living organisms for many reasons. In some adult tissues, such as bone marrow, muscle, and brain, populations of adult stem cells generate replacements for cells that are lost through normal wear and tear, injury, or disease. These stem cells are carried through our blood to areas that have sent out messages that they are damaged and then those areas can start the repair and regeneration process.
Stem cell treatments may increase lifespan not through systemically slowing ageing, but rather by keeping us alive via maintaining or replacing the function of key organs. Often humans die not because of our body’s overall physiological age, but rather because one vital organ gives out on us.
Recent studies now show that stem cell function declines with advancing age, falling victim to such threats as oxidative stress, inflammation and DNA damage, resulting in impaired ability of tissues and organs to repair themselves. In this way, ageing itself is closely related to the accumulation of dysfunctional stem cells and the inability for tissues and organs to regenerate themselves.
To increase our own stem cell activity and prevent our own pool of stem cells from becoming exhausted we need to target the ways stem cells get damaged, primarily by avoiding radiation, restoring mitochondrial function and increasing their nutritional fuel reserves. Then we need to upregulate their production from the bone marrow and make sure they get to the areas of greatest need in a timely and efficient manner.
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are harmful compounds that are formed when protein or fat combine with sugar in the bloodstream. This process is called glycation.
AGEs accumulate naturally as you age and are created when certain foods are cooked at high temperatures, especially barbequed, roasts, fried, grilled and toasted foods. Think the brown, black burnt parts on toast, barbequed or roasted food.
Our body has ways to eliminate these harmful compounds but when we consume too many AGEs, they'll build up faster than our body can eliminate them, and they will accumulate. This build up in the body has been shown to affect our body’s cells, promoting oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and mitochondrial issues. These are all factors in whole body ageing and in the development or worsening of many degenerative diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, and Alzheimer's disease.
There are however things we can do to reduce levels of AGEs in our body, choose different cooking methods, limit foods high in AGEs, being active and making sure you consume a high level of antioxidant-rich nutrients.
Spermidines are part of a larger group of Polyamines that interact with DNA, RNA and proteins. These molecules have been found to play a role in the growth, maturation and survival of virtually all types of cells. Spermidines play this vital role in cell survival by stimulating a cellular activity called Autophagy which is the body’s way of clearing out damaged cells and giving support to cells that are in distress. Autophagy (Auto=self/Phagy=eat) literally means to “eat self”. Autophagy cleans the cell from within, this process allows for the orderly destruction and recycling of cellular components.
Spermidines are also essential for cell growth, cell division and tissue regeneration. New research has discovered they bind and stabilize DNA and RNA, have antioxidative activities, anti-inflammatory properties, modulate enzyme functions, and are required for the regulation of genetic decoding. This enables the cell and it’s mitochondria to function more effectively and for longer periods.
Good concentrations of Spermidines have been found in fermented and aged foods such as blue cheese, miso and mushrooms. Various amino acids such Lysine and Arginine have also been found to be involved in the production of polyamines and spermidines. Exciting new research is being done on these various molecules and how the microbiota of the gut plays a role in their activity, metabolism storage and utilisation.
Nutrigenomics considers how things in our diet influences our genome, and how this interaction modifies the way our genes express themselves. Diet alters biological systems to promote either health or disease.
The food we eat has a direct impact on our nutrient metabolism. The nutrients that are extracted from the food we eat perform multiple functions and switch on various codes in our cells. Food not carefully chosen can lead to conditions such as obesity or type-2 diabetes. Different nutrients such as vitamins, flavonoids, polyphenols and certain fatty acids affect the body in different ways, they can change the way our cells work and their regulation.
Scientific advances have helped understand how our genome (genetic code) and epigenome (attachments to the code) are ordered. This makes it possible to measure and understand how our food and environment can influence the functioning of our organs at a DNA level. Food molecules can affect how genes work and how well they work through multiple pathways including our microbiome, gut lining, immune activation and various Nrf2 transcription pathways, leading to improved anti-oxidant defenses and lowered inflammation at a cellular level.
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